Clincians utilize the PCIA-II/MAP intervention (Bohr,
2005, 2004a, 2004b) to alter the attributions of parents in high-risk families. The PCIA-II/MAP is a manualized treatment employed in Canada
and the USA that integrates direct observation,
video-recall, free response, and rating scale assessment (see Bohr & Holigrocki, 2005).
The goal of the six-session intervention is to modify mothers’ negative
attributions, decrease parenting stress and depression, as well as reduce
children’s behavior problems. The intervention was designed to be used
with parents who have children between the ages of 3- and 10-years-old.
The intervention begins with a clinician reviewing an initial PCIA-II
pre-treatment video recording of the dyad for the purpose of identifying competencies
as well as areas of parenting difficulties such as negative attributions,
and strengths. Over the intervention period, the clinician and parent
collaborate to build on strengths while recognizing and modifying the parent’s
Treatment outcome is assessed using observational measures of parent-child
interaction (PCIA-II), a series of parent report (e.g., Parent Attributions
Test; Bugental, 2004; Parenting Stress Inventory, Abidin, 1995; Beck Depression
Inventory-II, Steer & Brown, 1996; Child Behavior Checklist, Achenbach
& Rescorla, 2001) and teacher report (CBCL-TRF; Achenbach and Rescorla,
2001) measures of parent and child behavior, and free response measures
of defenses (e.g., Defense Mechanisms Manual, Cramer, 1991).
The PCIA-II/MAP is currently being used in treatment and treatment research
in Toronto, Canada.
Bohr, Y. (2004, June). Visits to the zoo and infant mental health:
Experimenting with innovative models for treatment for the very young. Workshop at the Canadian Psychological Association Annual Convention,
St. John’s, Newfoundland, Canada.
Bohr, Y. (2004, July). Play, attachment, and negative parental attributions:
An innovative intervention. Workshop at the American Psychological
Association Annual Convention, Honolulu, HI.
Bohr, Y. (2005). Infant Mental Health Programs: Experimenting with innovative
models. Infant Mental Health Journal, 26(5), 407-422. PDF
Bohr, Y. (2007, June). Modifying risky parental attributions: a brief cognitive approach to the prevention of relationship ruptures and child maltreatment. Invited seminar, the University of Rome, La Sapienza, Roma.
Bohr, Y., Armour, L., Sockett di Marco, N., Halpert, B., Mullen, N. & Chan, J. (2007, July). Modifying risky parental attributions: a brief cognitive approach to the prevention of relationship ruptures and child maltreatment. Workshop, the World Congress of Behavior and Cognitive Therapies, Barcelona, Spain.
Bohr, Y., Dhayanandhan, B., Armour, L., Sockett DiMarco, N., Holigrocki, R. & Baumgartner, E. (2008). Mapping parent-infant interactions: A brief cognitive approach to the prevention of relationship ruptures and infant maltreatment (The MAP method). Infant Mental Health Promotion: IMPrint, 51, 2-7 (Invited article). PDF
Bohr, Y., Sockett di Marco, N., Armour, L., Halpert, B., Mullen, N. & Gates, S. (2007, July). Addressing parental cognitions in the context of Attachment: an intervention to reduce risk for maltreatment. Poster presentation, International Attachment Conference, Braga, Portugal.
Bohr, Y. & Holigrocki, R. J. (2005). PCIA-II/MAP Treatment Manual: Modifying Attributions of Parents intervention. Unpublished manuscript, York University and the University of Indianapolis. PDF
Bohr, Y. & Holigrocki, R. (2006, June). Modifying negative parental attributions through play: First step in preventing maltreatment? Poster presented at From Research to Practice: Society for Psychotherapy Research Annual Meeting, University of Edinburgh, Scotland.
Holigrocki, R. J., Hudson Crain, R., Bohr, Y. & Young, K. (2006, March). When direct observation assessment becomes treatment: Modifying the negative attributions of women victims of domestic violence. In Constance T. Fischer (Chair), Collaborative Feedback. Paper presented at the Society for Personality Assessment Annual Meeting in San Diego, CA.
Holigrocki, R., Crain, R., Bohr, Y., Young, K. & Bensman, H. (2009). Interventional use of the Parent–Child Interaction Assessment–II enactments: Modifying an abused mother's attributions to her son. Journal of Personality Assessment, 91 (5), 397-408. PDF